All You Need to Know About Types of Knee Replacement Surgery

icon-blog By -Dr. Kanika Sharma
icon-blog By -January 8, 2024
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All You Need to Know About Types of Knee Replacement Surgery

One of the degenerative joint diseases that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness is osteoarthritis. This has a significant impact on a person's capacity to carry out daily tasks. Usually, it affects not just the surrounding tissues but the entire joint. It typically affects the hips, hands, knees, and spine. Numerous factors, such as advanced age, excessive body weight, and a history of joint injury or overuse, contribute to the development of this disease. Women are typically more affected than male are.. Early-stage disease symptoms can be reduced with exercise and a good diet. However, in extreme cases, joint replacement surgery becomes absolutely necessary to relieve pain and restore mobility.

One of the best and most successful orthopedic surgical treatments known presently is total knee replacement surgery. Excellent long-term results, ranging from 90% to 98%, are known to be delivered by it. Correct leg axis restoration, precise component positioning, and accurate ligament balancing are just a few of the technical requirements that must be strictly followed for the procedure to be successful. Correct joint exposure is also a determining factor. Ensuring proper positioning and alignment of prosthetic components is crucial in order to minimize errors and prevent early mechanical implant failure. 

What is Knee Replacement Surgery? 

Knee replacement surgery is performed for replacing an injured or worn-out knee joint completely or partially. The surgery may improve both pain and knee mobility. A surgeon evaluates the strength, stability, and range of motion of your knee to figure out if a knee replacement is an appropriate option for you. X-rays aid in determining the extent of damage. The most appropriate artificial joints and surgical methods for you will be determined by your knee size and shape, age, weight, level of activity, and overall health.

Why is Knee Replacement Surgery Needed?

The most common reason for this surgery is to relieve arthritis pain. Patients who need this surgery usually experience difficulty getting out of chairs, walking, and navigating stairs. If only one section of the knee is damaged, surgeons typically replace only that portion. If the joint needs to be replaced, the thigh and shin bone ends are reshaped, and the joint is completely resurfaced. These bones are made up of hard tubes that have soft centers. The artificial components' ends are inserted into the softer central part of the bones.

Ligaments are tissue bands that help to hold joints together. If the knee ligaments are not strong enough to hold the joint together on their own, the surgeon may choose implants with connectable components.

What are the Types of Knee Replacement Surgery?

Your doctor will recommend either total or partial knee replacement based on the extent of the impairment or damage as well as the individual's overall health:

  • Total Knee replacement surgery: A total knee replacement is the most common type of knee replacement. The doctor performing the surgery will replace all three components of your knee joint: the medial (inside), lateral (outside), and patellofemoral (knee cap).
  • Partial knee replacement: This is precisely what it sounds like. Partial knee replacement: It sounds exactly like this. The entire knee structure is not replaced during a partial knee replacement. Your surgeon will probably only replace the one or two affected areas of your knee joint. Younger adults are more probable to undergo partial knee replacements following an injury or trauma.

What are the Types of Knee Replacement Implants?

Knee replacement implants are of the following types: 

  • Metal-on-plastic implant: It is made from the combination of non-reactive metal alloy component and a biocompatible plastic component. A polyethylene plastic spacer fastened to the tibial component supports a metal femoral component. It is the most commonly used and least expensive implant. It is safe and durable. However, it may cause immune reactions and bone breakage in certain cases. 
  • Ceramic on ceramic implant: Both the femoral and tibial components of implant are made of ceramic. It is less likely to cause immune reactions. But it is noisy. 
  • Metal-on-metal implant: Both the femoral and tibial components of implant are made of non reactive metal alloys. It is most long-lasting and durable.
  • Ceramic-on-plastic implant: In place of metal, this type uses a ceramic femoral component (or a metal component coated in ceramic). It moves on a plastic spacer. It is generally given to patients who have nickel sensitivity.

Success Rate of Knee Replacement Surgery

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) reports that 90% of patients who get a knee replacement experience significant relief in pain. For many patients, knee replacement helps them to stay active and return hobbies they previously enjoyed, like walking and playing golf.
As per AAOS, over 90 % of replacement knees are still functioning even after 15 years. According to a 2019 study, 82 % of total knee replacements are still functioning even after 25 years of surgery. A successful knee replacement has potential to offer you a higher quality of life, better mobility, and lesser pain.

What are the factors that can affect cost of Knee Replacement Surgery?

Following are the factors affecting the cost of knee replacement surgery in India:

  • Doctor’s expertise: The number of successful cases accomplished by a doctor may affect the cost of treatment. Generally, higher the expertise, higher will be the cost.
  • Doctor’s experience: The doctors with more years of work experience in knee replacement surgeries will charge more.
  • Extent of knee damage: Greater damage will require a more extensive and complex course of treatment, which will also increase costs. 
  • Overall health status of patients: People having prevailing illnesses and old-age people will be at risk of getting more complications. So, there will be more post-operative care for them which will increase the cost.
  • Out of pocket expense: If your treatment is not being covered under your health insurance policy, then you may have to pay a higher out of pocket amount for the treatment. 
  • Pre-Surgical expenses: Various diagnostic tests will add to the total cost of the treatment.
  • Hospital fees: If you are choosing a government hospital for your treatment, then the cost of the treatment will definitely be highly affordable. On the contrary, if you choose any private or corporate hospital for your treatment then you will have to pay a higher amount.
  • Type of surgery: Depending upon your condition, your doctor will plan the treatment approach for you. This will also impact the cost of treatment depending upon the approach chosen.
  • City where hospital is located: Hospitals located in bigger cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Noida, Gurugram, etc. may charge comparatively more than the hospitals located in the smaller cities. This is because hospitals in the metropolises can facilitate you better in every aspect.

Why is India the Right Destination for Knee Replacement Surgery?

In today’s scenario, there has been advancement in the surgical orthopedics field especially joint replacement surgeries. It has shown a fast-paced development in the recent decades. In the last few years, an exponential rise in the number of joint replacement surgeries was noticed in India. Numerous government programmes for the lower classes and the implementation of price caps have also contributed to this surge, enabling individuals who previously would not have had access to joint replacement surgeries to now undergo operations on a regular basis. A market survey indicates that the number of joint replacement surgeries performed in India is rising annually. It was estimated that 2,00,000 knee arthroplasty procedures will be performed in India in 2020. The number of businesses offering implants has also grown significantly over the past ten years. As of now, both domestic and international businesses offer implants in India.

India is home to various skilled orthopedic surgeons. Moreover, the advanced healthcare infrastructure and facilities make India a right choice for undergoing any orthopedic surgery.  Therefore, choosing the best doctors for knee replacement surgery and the best hospitals for knee replacement surgery in India is getting easier every day. Furthermore, the cost of this surgery in India is very affordable in comparison to developed nations. 


Can I go for knee replacement if I am diabetic or hypertensive?

Yes, you can undergo knee replacement even if you are hypertensive or diabetic. But you need to inform your doctor about all the diseases you are suffering from during your medical history taking process. This will help your doctor to prepare a treatment plan accordingly.

How long will the surgery last?

Generally, a knee replacement procedure takes one to two hours. However, the duration may differ from individual to individual.

What else can be done for knee arthritis besides surgery?

Various medicines and supplements can help to manage knee arthritis in the initial stages. But surgery for the joint replacement becomes very necessary in severe cases to reduce pain and regain mobility. 

Which type of replacement would benefit me?

Depending upon the extent of damage, your doctor will discuss with you whether you require total knee replacement or partial knee replacement.

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