Types of Kidney Diseases

icon-blog By -Dr. Kanika Sharma
icon-blog By -November 30, 2023


Know More About Types of Kidney Diseases

Kidney disease imposes a significant economic burden, with high-income countries allocating over 2–3% of their annual health-care budget types of kidney diseases to treat end-stage kidney disease, affecting less than 0.03% of the total population. In 2010, 2.62 million people underwent dialysis globally, and projections suggested a doubling of this need by 2030. Surprisingly, treating milder forms of chronic kidney disease incurs a greater global cost than end-stage kidney disease. In 2015, the United States spent over $64 billion on Medicare for chronic kidney disease and $34 billion for end-stage kidney disease. Kidney disease contributes substantially to expenditures, morbidity, and mortality previously attributed to diabetes and hypertension.

Internationally, key risk factors for different types of kidney diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, HIV infection, low birth weight, malaria, and preterm birth, align with leading global causes of DALYs. These risks, influenced by environmental, infection, and lifestyle factors, span the entire life-course. Early identification of risk factors allows for preventive measures, averting acute kidney injury and slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease through cost-effective interventions, many listed on the World Health Organization’s best buys for noncommunicable disease management.

These interventions encompass counseling for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension, drug therapy, tobacco control, promotion of physical activity, and reduction of salt intake through legislation and food labeling. Timely identification and management of different types of kidney diseases offer the most effective strategy to address the escalating global burden. By advocating for a multisectoral approach aligned with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is potential to reduce the global incidence of kidney disease. The discussion delves into opportunities for kidney health within the pursuit of each SDGs.

Today, we'll explore the types of kidney diseases, providing you the valuable insights. Read further for details.

Read in Hindi: Kidney Diseases Symptoms & Causes

What is Kidney Disease?

The kidneys, small organs responsible for filtering blood, eliminating toxins, and maintaining overall bodily health, can have a cascading impact on various body parts if afflicted by disease. Factors such as diabetes or elevated cholesterol levels, specific injuries or illnesses, and hereditary predisposition within families can contribute to the onset of kidney diseases. These diseases manifest in diverse forms, each presenting distinct symptoms—some causing pain and others affecting urination. The array of kidney diseases encompasses several types, each with its unique characteristics.

Types of Kidney Diseases and Their Causes

There are the different types of kidney diseases and their respective causes. Following is kidney diseases list:

Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Kidney Disease, commonly referred to as CKD, stands as one of the prevalent kidney disease names and a persistent health condition necessitating treatment from reputable kidney transplant facilities in Mumbai, renowned for their quality options. The primary contributor to CKD is often high blood pressure, exerting a detrimental impact on the kidneys by escalating pressure on the glomeruli—tiny blood vessels responsible for blood cleansing within the kidneys.

The prolonged elevation in pressure inflicts damage upon these vessels, leading to a gradual decline in kidney functions.
This deterioration eventually culminates in a state where the kidneys struggle to execute their tasks adequately, prompting the need for interventions such as dialysis. Alternatively, a kidney transplant may be considered based on individual circumstances. Diabetes also stands as a significant catalyst for chronic kidney disease, elevating blood sugar levels and causing enduring damage to the kidney's blood vessels. This impairment renders the kidneys ineffective in purifying the blood, resulting in kidney failure and an accumulation of toxins in the body.

Kidney Stones: Kidney stones represent another prevalent kidney complication arising from the crystallization of minerals and other substances in the blood, forming solid masses. While typically expelled during urination, the process can be excruciatingly painful. Fortunately, kidney stones rarely lead to substantial complications

.Urinary Tract Infections: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) manifest as bacterial infections within any segment of the urinary system, with bladder and urethra infections being most common. Although easily treatable with medical intervention, untreated UTIs have the potential to progress to the kidneys, culminating in kidney failure.

Polycystic Kidney Disease: Polycystic Kidney Disease, a genetic disorder, manifests as the proliferation of numerous cysts in the kidneys, impeding their normal functions and ultimately resulting in kidney failure.

Glomerulonephritis: Glomerulonephritis denotes inflammation in the glomeruli, minuscule structures within the kidneys responsible for blood filtration. Major causes include infections, drug-related issues, and congenital abnormalities.

All the aforementioned different types of kidney diseases carry substantial severity, and timely treatment is imperative to prevent exacerbation. 

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases

Failure to identify different types of kidney diseases at an early stage can result in severe repercussions. It is crucial to recognize the various symptoms of kidney disease to promptly seek medical intervention. Here is a compilation of early indicators of kidney diseases:

  • Fatigue
  • Poor appetite
  • Muscle cramping
  • Puffiness around the eyes
  • Swollen feet and ankles
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Dry and scaly skin
  • Frequent urination, particularly at night

Furthermore, symptoms signaling the progression of kidney disease include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anemia
  • Fluid retention
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Alterations in urine output

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases

Several diagnostic tests are essential for identifying different types of kidney diseases, including:

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR): This measurement gauges the fluid filtration capacity of the kidneys. A higher GFR indicates better kidney function, making it a crucial test for assessing kidney health.
  • Ultrasound or Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Individuals diagnosed with kidney disease undergo these scans to detect tumors. Ultrasound or CT scans provide detailed images of the kidneys and urinary tract, aiding in the identification of tumors and structural abnormalities.
  • Kidney Biopsy: This procedure involves closely examining kidney cells. A biopsy entails the removal of a small kidney tissue sample for examination, revealing any abnormal cell presence.
  • Urine Test: Doctors prescribe urine tests to assess Albumin levels, a protein found in urine. This test aids in diagnosing protein or blood loss in urine, offering insights into potential causes of kidney diseases.
  • Blood Creatinine Test: This test evaluates kidney function by measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood. Creatinine, a waste chemical, serves as an indicator to assess the risk of developing kidney diseases.

What is the Treatment for Kidney Disease?

Depending on the underlying causes and chronic kidney disease symptoms, certain types of kidney disease may be treatable, but in many cases, chronic kidney disease lacks a definitive cure. Treatment primarily focuses on managing symptoms, reducing complications, and slowing the progression of the disease. In cases of severe kidney damage, treatment for end-stage kidney disease may be necessary.

1. Addressing the cause: Efforts are made to slow or control the cause of kidney disease, with treatment options varying based on the underlying condition.     However, kidney damage may persist even after controlling an underlying condition like diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure.

2. Managing complications: Complications of kidney disease can be controlled to enhance comfort. Treatment approaches may include:

  • High blood pressure medications: Prescribed to mitigate worsening high blood pressure, commonly involving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, along with a diuretic and a low-salt diet.
  • Medications to relieve swelling: Diuretics help maintain fluid balance in individuals with chronic kidney disease who often retain fluids, leading to swelling and high blood pressure.
  • Medications to treat anemia: Supplements of erythropoietin, sometimes with added iron, stimulate red blood cell production, alleviating fatigue and weakness associated with anemia.
  • Medications to lower cholesterol levels: Statins may be recommended to reduce elevated cholesterol levels, which are common in people with chronic kidney disease and increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Medications to protect bones: Calcium and vitamin D supplements, along with phosphate binders, can prevent weak bones and reduce the risk of fractures.
  • Lower protein diet: To minimize waste products in the blood, a reduced protein intake may be advised by a doctor or registered dietitian.

Regular follow-up testing may be recommended to monitor the stability or progression of kidney disease.

Treatment for end-stage kidney disease:

If kidney function declines to the point of complete or near-complete kidney failure, dialysis or a kidney transplant becomes necessary.

  • Dialysis: Hemodialysis uses a machine to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, while peritoneal dialysis involves filling the abdominal cavity with a dialysis solution that absorbs waste and excess fluids.
  • Kidney transplant: Surgically placing a healthy kidney from a donor into the recipient's body. Transplanted kidneys can come from deceased or living donors, and lifelong medication is required to prevent organ rejection.

For those opting against dialysis or a transplant, conservative measures, including symptom management, advance care planning, and palliative care, may be pursued.

To Summarize

Varying types of kidney diseases are widespread, with some being preventable and others manageable through treatment. There exists a variety of kidney conditions, underscoring the importance of promptly consulting your doctor upon experiencing any symptoms indicative of kidney disease. Your doctor will carefully assess the information presented and identify the specific disease involved. An early diagnosis facilitates more effective treatment from your medical team.

Rely on Medflick as your trustworthy source for precise, current, and reliable information on types of kidney diseases or any other health-related subjects. Your health and overall well-being deserve nothing less than well-informed and thoughtful guidance. 

Frequently Ask Questions:

Q1: What are the 5 diseases of the kidneys?

A: The five types of kidney diseases are diverse, and they include conditions such as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), kidney stones, urinary tract infections (UTIs), Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), and Glomerulonephritis.

Q2: What are the different types of kidney diseases?

A: Types of kidney diseases encompass a variety of conditions, including but not limited to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), kidney stones, urinary tract infections (UTIs), Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), and Glomerulonephritis.

Q3: What are the 5 stages of kidney failure?

A: The progression of kidney failure is classified into five stages, ranging from Stage 1 (mild) to Stage 5 (end-stage renal disease or ESRD). Each stage reflects a different level of impairment in kidney function.

Q4: Is Stage 3 kidney disease serious?

A: Yes, Stage 3 kidney disease is considered significant and requires medical attention amongst Types of kidney diseases. It signifies a moderate decline in kidney function and warrants intervention to manage and slow down the progression of the disease.

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