Women's Health: Understanding Common Gynecological Issues

icon-blog By -Dr. Kanika Sharma
icon-blog By -January 15, 2024
  • Home
  • Blogs
  • Women's Health: Understanding Common Gynecological Issues


Women's Health: Understanding Common Gynecological Issues

Gynecological diseases are health problems affecting female reproductive organs. It involves the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, external genitalia, and breasts. Some very common gynecological diseases will have a significant impact on women's health at one point or another in their lives. However, some of these gynecological disorders may even take away a woman's ability to have children and sexual function. In certain uncommon circumstances, her general health may be at risk if the condition is not addressed timely. It is crucial to see a women's health specialist on a regular basis, as well as when something abnormal or odd occurs.

Common Gynecological Problems


Dysmenorrhea is a commonly seen gynecological disorder where a girl or woman has severe menstrual pain that interferes with daily life. The two subtypes are primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrhea.

In primary dysmenorrhea, there is no underlying pelvic cause. It occurs throughout adolescence and coincides with ovulation. Once women give birth, this pain goes away on its own. The average onset is between the ages of 12 and 14. Pain typically starts even a few hours before menstruation and can last for a few hours or a whole day, differing from individual to individual.

Secondary dysmenorrhea is due to health issues in the pelvis. Some common causes are chronic pelvic infection, uterine fibroids, pelvic endometriosis, insertion of copper-T in the uterus, etc. It is usually seen in mothers in their thirties. Individuals suffer from pain three to five days before the period and are relieved once bleeding starts.


Amenorrhea implies a lack of menstruation. It can be further classified into physiological and pathological categories. Physiological amenorrhea is seen before adolescence, during pregnancy and lactation, and post-menopause. Pathological amenorrhea happens when there are some underlying women’s health issues and can be categorized into cryptomenorrhea as well as primary and secondary amenorrhea.

Cryptomenorrhea is the absence of menstruation due to an obstruction of flow. Primary amenorrhea affects girls who have adrenal, thyroid, or chromosomal issues and have not had their first period by the age of 16. Secondary amenorrhea happens to adult women who have been without a period for six months or more due to PCOS,malnutrition , diabetes, stress, tumors, and so on.

Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS)

PCOS is one of the most common gynecological problems and is frequently heard about.
The main cause of this problem is a stressful and inactive lifestyle. The ovary produces an abnormal amount of testosterone and is specific for this condition.

There are numerous follicular cysts with varying sizes of 2–9 mm. Some of the common symptoms of PCOS are weight gain, irregular periods, difficulty conceiving, excessive body and facial hair, and a larger size of the ovaries than normal. These individuals become more prone to diabetes and develop insulin resistance.

Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are the most common non-spreading tumors and can cause gynecological issues. Approximately 20% of women in their late thirties have uterine fibroids. A majority of them are completely asymptomatic. Women who never had children or became infertile after having one are at higher risk.
Typical symptoms of uterine fibroids are infertility, uncomfortable intercourse,heavy or irregular bleeding, repeated miscarriage,pelvic pain, and pain in the lower abdomen.


Endometrium (uterus lining) is present in abnormal locations outside the uterus,such as fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterine muscles, and even the pelvic floor. This condition is known as endometriosis. Some of the common symptoms are nausea,constipation or diarrhea, infertility, fatigue, painful periods, and intercourse.
Once a diagnosis is confirmed, the first medicinal treatment, like painkillers,synthetic steroids, progesterone tablets, and hormonal contraceptives, is prescribed. In cases where medicinal treatment is not effective,conservative surgery for the removal of endometriosis tissue is done to provide relief to the patient.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

This condition affects the upper genitourinary system. It can have a serious impact on young women's health, especially their childbearing abilities. Some of the risk factors are menstruating adolescents, multiple sexual partners, neglecting birth control, a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, IUDs, and living in an area with a high rate of STIS.
Some of the symptoms are pain during intercourse, excessive or abnormal vaginal bleeding, fatigue, fever, and headache.


Vaginitis, as the term "itis" refers to inflammation, means vaginal infection with inflammation. Due to a lack of estrogen leading to the breakdown of estrogenic vaginal defense, it is most commonly seen in childhood. The main causative agent for vaginitis in the reproductive years is microbial infection.
If the microorganism is Trichomonas vaginalis, it can trigger Trichomonas vaginitis. Some of the symptoms associated with it are painful and frequent urination, an abrupt increase in the amount of vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, and a yellowish green color.
Candida albicans causes yeast infection, also known as Candida vaginitis or moniliasis. Some of the symptoms are thick,whitish, curdy, and flaky discharge sticking to the vaginal wall, along with severe vulvovaginal discharge.


Menopause is the permanent stopping of menstruation when ovarian function declines. It marks the end of a woman's reproductive years. When menstruation is absent for 12 or more months without any underlying illness, the diagnosis of menopause is definitive. The average age for menopause is 50 years. It is a part of the normal female aging process, not a gynecological problem itself, but has some unpleasant symptoms that can be subsided with the help of appropriate treatment. Stress, headaches,worry , sleeplessness, irritability, and even depression are all possible.
Some lifestyle changes and being attentive to your sexual health can minimize the risk of developing gynecological health issues. Notice and report any changes in your reproductive health to your healthcare provider immediately.

Gynecological conditions

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer, as the name suggests, develops in a woman's cervix. The HPV virus, a common virus transmitted through sexual contact, causes about 99% of cases. If the infection is resolved spontaneously, it will not cause any symptoms, but in the case of a recurrent infection, it can lead to cervical cancer. It is the fourth-most common cancer in women. Vaccination and secondary prevention approaches prevent most cervical cancer cases.

If diagnosed at an early stage, it is the most successfully treated form of cancer.

Endometrial cancers

This type of growth begins in the uterus. It’s cause is unknown and is usually diagnosed early due to symptoms like vaginal bleeding after menopause, bleeding between periods, and pelvic pain.

Heavy menstrual bleeding: Some women have heavy menstrual bleeding that can last for more than a few days. Some symptoms of heavy menstrual bleeding are:

  • Soaking one or more sanitary pads or tampons every hour for a number of hours in a row.
  • You need double sanitary protection to control your menstrual flow.
  • Waking up at night to change sanitary pads or tampons.
  • Bleeding for over a week.
  • Passing blood clots bigger than a quarter.
  • Restricting daily activities due to heavy menstrual flow.
  • Feeling fatigued, tired, or short of breath is the result of blood loss.

Causes: Some have an unknown etiology, but some known causes are

Hormonal imbalance

  • Anovulation (sometimes the ovaries don't release the egg during menstruation)
  • Fibroids
  • Polyps
  • Cancer, genetic bleeding disorders, and medicines (blood thinners)

Ovarian Cancer

The growth of cells in the ovary causes ovarian cancer. It has a predilection for older age, a familial history of ovarian cancer, obesity, endometriosis, and women who have never been pregnant. Treatment includes surgery and chemotherapy.

Uterine prolapse

It occurs when the muscles and tissues of your pelvis weaken and cannot support the weight of the uterus. Some of the risk factors are multiple vaginal deliveries, heavy weight lifting without proper technique, menopause, and obesity.

Gynecologic Symptoms

Menstruation includes vaginal bleeding and discharge, which is a common part of menopause. But if you notice anything out of the ordinary or abrupt, visit your healthcare provider as soon as possible. Do not try to treat it on your own.

Symptoms are seen in cases of mild infections that can be treated easily with prompt care and medication. If the problem is not addressed at an early stage, it may result in more serious conditions, like kidney damage. Some vaginal symptoms may be signs of reproductive tract cancer.
Gynecological symptoms should not be taken lightly, as sometimes they may be a warning sign of conditions other than gynecological issues.

Some of the most common gynecological symptoms are as follows: Visit immediately to your nearest specialist:

  • Bleeding between periods
  • Frequent urination with or without a burning sensation
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Pain other than menstrual cramps in your pelvis
  • Vaginal itching, burning, swelling, redness, or soreness
  • Sores or lumps in the genital area
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor or unusual color
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Early detection and prompt treatment increase the chances of successful treatment several times.

Treatment of Gynecological Disease

Treatment depends on the patient's symptoms, severity, stage, and age. Following are the treatments given for common gynecological issues.

Menorrhagia (heavy bleeding)

Medical Management: Hormonal therapy, medications, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) can regulate bleeding.

Minimally Invasive Procedures: Endometrial ablation destroys the lining of the uterus, reducing bleeding; uterine fibroid embolization shrinks fibroids, lessening bleeding.

Surgery: Hysterectomy, a complete or partial removal of the uterus, is generally not recommended in routine; it is a last resort for severe cases.

  • Dysmenorrhea:
  • Pain Relievers
  • Hormonal Therapy
  • Heat Therapy

Irregular Cycles

  • Lifestyle changes (stress management, weight management)
  • Medical Management: Hormonal therapy to manage hormonal imbalance


  • Hormonal therapy (to relieve symptoms)
  • Surgery: removal of tissue either by laparoscopic or robotic surgery
  • Pain Management

Uterine Fibroids

  • Watchful Waiting: Monitoring asymptomatic fibroids is often sufficient if symptoms are mild or nonexistent.
  • Medical management (to reduce the size)


  • Surgery:Hysterectomy is opted for in cases of large fibroids, especially when future pregnancy is not desired.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID):
  • Antibiotics

Pain Management

  • Surgery: In severe cases, laparoscopic surgery may be unavoidable to take out abscesses or scar tissue.
  • Cancer treatment: The following methods can be used in combination or stand alone, depending on the stage and spread of cancer.
  • Surgical removal
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy

Read More: Best Gynecologists In Dubai, UAE

What are the most common conditions in gynecology?

PCOS, pelvic pain, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis are some of the most common gynecological conditions.

What is the most common gynecological condition?

Menstrual abnormalities like painful periods, abnormal bleeding, ovarian cysts, and uterine fibroids.

What causes gynecological problems?

Stress and anxiety, leading to hormonal imbalances, cause the majority of common gynecological problems. Hormonal imbalances have a severe effect on women’s bodies as they lead to menstrual cycle imbalance, delayed periods, changes in the microbial environment, and changes in the vagina’s pH, leading to a number of gynecological issues.

Need Assistance?

Stay Informed, Stay Healthy

Subscribe to our Newsletter and make your informed health decisions. Get essential health insights and updates delivered straight to your inbox. Join now for a healthier you.