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Angioplasty and Stent Placement

Avg Price: $2500 -$8500

Angioplasty refers to a technique aimed at widening constricted or obstructed blood pathways responsible for delivering blood to the heart, specifically the coronary arterie...
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  • 4-5 Days

    Treatment Time

  • 2-3 Days

    Recovery Time

  • 1-2 Days

    Hospitalization Days

  • 98%-100%

    Success Rate

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An Insight Into Angioplasty and Stent Placement

95% Success Rate
11000+ Doctors
150+ Top Hospitals
250+ Surgeries
35+ Countries
95% Success Rate
11000+ Doctors
150+ Top Hospitals
250+ Surgeries
35+ Countries

Overview

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) plays a substantial role in both global mortality and health-related challenges. According to a report by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) was accountable for 17.5 million deaths, making up 30% of the total 58 million deaths worldwide. Over the last two decades, there has been a worrisome increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases particularly Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and deaths related to it in countries like India and other nations in South Asia. The occurrence of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) among Indians residing in India is 21.4% for individuals with diabetes and 11% for those without diabetes.

This emphasizes the need for therapeutic alternatives like angioplasty and the stent placement. These medical interventions have been hailed as a blessing within the cardiovascular domain, owing to their substantial merits in managing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and enhancing the holistic quality of life for individuals.

In the span of one year in 2018, approximately 438,351 angioplasties were conducted in India, reflecting a growth rate of 13.14% compared to the data from 2017, and these procedures utilized 578,164 coronary stents. This rise in numbers could potentially be attributed to the higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, the establishment of angioplasty facilities in tier 2 cities, greater accessibility to affordable stents, reduced costs, increased awareness among the general populace, and a higher count of interventional cardiologists across the nation. More than 47% of these interventions were carried out in centers with substantial caseloads, while only 4.42% of centers were responsible for performing nearly 27% of the total angioplasty procedures.

Therefore, with the progressing time, the effort to find the best doctor for angioplasty and stent placement and the best hospital for angioplasty and stent placement in India is progressively becoming more convenient and financially feasible.

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Types of Angioplasty and Stents

There exist two primary categories of Angioplasty:

Balloon angioplasty: It entails the application of an inflating balloon's pressure to clear the plaque obstructing an artery. This approach is seldom employed alone, except in situations where stent placement is not feasible in the necessary position.

Stent Angioplasty: It is insertion of a stent into the artery, employing a wire mesh tube referred to as a stent. Stents serve the purpose of preventing a recurring narrowing of the artery subsequent to angioplasty. Research data from 2018 approximates that medical practitioners in the United States implant more than 1.8 million stents annually.

Coronary Stents can be categorized into several types based on their composition, design, and properties. The main types of Coronary Stents include:

Bare Metal Stents (BMS): These stents are made of metal, usually stainless steel or similar materials. They are designed to provide structural support to the artery and keep it open after angioplasty. BMS do not have any special coatings or medications.

Drug-Eluting Stents (DES): These stents are coated with medications that are slowly released into the surrounding tissue after stent placement. These medications help inhibit the growth of scar tissue within the stent, reducing the risk of re-narrowing (restenosis) of the artery. DES are effective in reducing the need for repeat procedures. At present, DES are predominantly utilized, with limited use of bare metal stents.

Bioabsorbable Stents: Also known as bioresorbable stents, these stents are designed to gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body over time. They provide temporary support to the artery, releasing medication as they dissolve. The advantage is that there is no permanent implant left behind, which might be beneficial for some patients.

Pre-Evaluation for Angioplasty and Stent Placement

The pre-evaluation is pivotal for ascertaining the appropriateness of Angioplasty and Stent Placement as a viable approach and for mitigating possible risks in the perioperative and postoperative periods. Below is an overview of the pre-evaluation process:

  • Blood Testing: The blood for recommended testing should be drawn within 30 days before your scheduled procedure. Keep in mind that you shouldn't eat or drink anything for 6 hours before this test.
  • Chest X-Ray: This examination provides the insight into the chest, lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm. No specific preparation is needed for this test.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG measures the heart's electrical activity. Electrodes will be placed on specific areas of your body (chest, arms, and legs). This generates a graphical representation (tracing) that can indicate heart-related conditions. No special preparation is required for this test.
  • Pulmonary Function Test (PFTs): These tests gauge how effectively the lungs take in and release air, as well as how well they manage gases like oxygen. Theres no need for preparation, and the test usually takes an hour.
  • Carotid Doppler/Ultrasound Study (Carotids): This ultrasound assesses carotid arteries for blockages or narrowing that could increase stroke risk. No special preparation is needed. The test typically lasts 30 minutes.
  • Ankle-Brachial Index (ABIs): This non-invasive test checks for artery blockages in your legs or arms, which could indicate peripheral artery disease. Its important as peripheral artery disease elevates the risk of heart attack, stroke, poor circulation, and leg pain. No preparation is necessary, and the test takes about an hour.
  • Surface Echocardiogram (Echo): This non-invasive evaluation examines heart valves, chambers, and overall function. No specific preparation is required for this 30-minute test.
  • Vein Mapping: This non-invasive assessment creates a map of leg veins, aiding the surgeon in preparation for bypass graft surgery. No preparation is needed. The test typically takes 30 minutes.
  • Trans-esophageal Echocardiogram (TEE): This invasive test examines heart valves, chambers, and function. It also assesses the diameter of the aorta. The entire process takes about 1 hour, with 2-3 hours for anesthesia recovery.
  • ECG-gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress Test): This cardiac scan measures blood flow in the heart muscle at rest and during exercise. A special tracer is injected into a vein, and pictures are taken after exercise. The test may take 3-6 hours.
  • Heart Catheterization (Cath): It is an invasive test examining coronary blood vessels for blockages. You should not eat or drink for 6 hours before this procedure, and you'll need someone to drive you home afterward. An IV contrast dye is used, and recovery takes about 4-6 hours.
  • Computed Tomography Scan (CT): This scan assesses the aorta, lungs, and organs. It identifies aneurysms and other issues, aiding surgery preparation. An IV contrast dye is used, and you shouldn't eat for 6 hours before or drink for 2 hours before the test. The scan takes about an hour.
  • Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This detailed test examines heart structure and function, requiring you to be metal-free due to the MRIs magnetic field.

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How is Angioplasty and Stent Placement done?

The typical course of Angioplasty generally proceeds as follows:

  • Preparation: You'll be asked to remove any items that could interfere with the procedure, like jewelry. Dentures or a hearing aid can be kept on if you use them. You will change into a gown and empty your bladder before the procedure. If there's excessive hair where the catheter will be inserted, it might be shaved off.
  • IV Line: An intravenous (IV) line will be started in your hand or arm. This will be used for medication administration and IV fluids if required.
  • Positioning and Monitoring: You will be placed on your back on the procedure table. Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes will monitor your hearts electrical activity and your vital signs. Multiple monitors will display your vital signs, catheter movement through your body and into your heart, and heart structures during dye injection.
  • Sedation: You will receive a sedative through your IV to help you relax. You will likely remain awake during the procedure.
  • Pulse Check: Your pulses below the catheter insertion site will be checked and marked for post-procedure circulation assessment.
  • Local Anesthesia: Local anesthesia will be injected into the skin where the catheter will be inserted, possibly in your leg, arm, or wrist. You might feel a brief stinging sensation.
  • Sheath Insertion: Once the local anesthesia takes effect, a sheath will be inserted into the blood vessel, often in the groin. This sheath is a plastic tube that guides the catheter into the blood vessel and then the heart.
  • Catheter Advancement: The catheter will be threaded through the sheath into the blood vessel. The doctor will guide it through the aorta into the heart using fluoroscopy (X-ray guidance).
  • Coronary Artery Imaging: The catheter will be advanced into the coronary arteries. Contrast dye will be injected through the catheter to visualize narrowed areas. You might feel a flushing sensation, a metallic taste, or a brief headache due to the dye.
  • Procedure Monitoring: You will be closely monitored throughout. Inform your doctor if you experience discomfort, trouble breathing, sweating, numbness, itching, nausea, chills, or heart palpitations.
  • X-ray Imaging: Rapid X-ray images of your heart and coronary arteries will be taken. You might be asked to hold your breath briefly during this process.
  • Balloon Inflation: Once the narrowed artery is located, the balloon will be inflated to open the artery. This might cause temporary chest discomfort due to blocked blood flow.
  • Stent Placement: The balloon might be inflated and deflated multiple times. The doctor may decide to insert a stent to keep the artery open. The stent might be placed before the balloon is inflated to ensure proper expansion.
  • Post-Procedure Evaluation: Measurements, images, or angiograms of the opened artery will be taken. Once the artery is deemed adequately open, the catheter will be removed.
  • Sheath Removal and Closure: The sheath will be removed, and the insertion site might be closed using a closure device, sutures, or manual pressure. This is determined by your doctors judgment.
  • Recovery: You will be moved to a recovery area. Depending on the insertion site, specific precautions might be taken, like not bending your leg (if inserted in the groin) or keeping your arm elevated and immobilized (if inserted in the arm).

Complications of Angioplasty and Stent Placement

Angioplasty is generally considered safe, but its important to discuss potential complications with your doctor. The risks associated with Angioplasty and Stent placement encompass:

  • Hypersensitivity reactions to the medication used in drug-eluting stents, the stent material itself (extremely uncommon), or the contrast dye employed in x-ray imaging
  • Bleeding or formation of clots at the insertion site of the catheter
  • Formation of blood clots
  • Occlusion of the inner portion of the stent (in-stent restenosis), which can have life-threatening implications
  • Injury to a heart valve or blood vessel
  • Heart attack
  • Kidney impairment (particularly in individuals with pre-existing kidney issues)
  • Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Stroke (generally infrequent)

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Post-Procedure

During your hospital stay:

After the procedure, you might either be taken to a recovery room for observation or brought back to your hospital room. You'll be required to lie flat in bed for several hours. A nurse will be in charge of monitoring your vital signs, the area where the catheter was inserted, and the circulation and sensation in the arm or leg that was treated.

If you experience any chest pain, tightness, discomfort, warmth, bleeding, or pain at the insertion site, its crucial to notify your nurse promptly. The duration of bed rest can range from 2 to 6 hours, depending on your individual condition. If your doctor used a closure device, your bed rest might be shorter.

In certain cases, the sheath or introducer may remain in the insertion site. In this situation, you will need to stay in bed until the sheath is removed. Once the sheath is taken out, you might be allowed a light meal. You may feel the need to urinate frequently due to the effects of the contrast dye and increased fluid intake. While on bed rest, you will use a bedpan or urinal to avoid bending your treated limb.

Once the prescribed bed rest time is over, you can get out of bed. The nurse will assist you the first time and check your blood pressure while you're lying down, sitting, and standing. It's advisable to move slowly when getting up to prevent dizziness from the prolonged bed rest. If you experience pain or discomfort at the insertion site or due to lying flat for an extended period, you might receive pain medication. Drinking water and other fluids is encouraged to help eliminate the contrast dye from your system.

You can generally return to your regular diet after the procedure, unless otherwise directed by your doctor. Expect to spend the night in the hospital after the procedure. Depending on your condition and the results of the procedure, your stay might be extended. You will receive comprehensive instructions for your discharge and recovery period.

After returning home:

When at home, monitor the insertion site for bleeding, unusual pain, swelling, changes in color, or temperature. Minor bruising is normal. However, if you notice consistent or excessive bleeding that can't be managed with a small dressing, inform your healthcare team.

If a closure device was used, you'll receive specific guidance on caring for the site. A small knot or lump beneath the skin is normal and should gradually subside over a few weeks. It's essential to keep the insertion site clean and dry. Your healthcare team will provide bathing instructions. Typically, you should avoid bathtubs, hot tubs, and swimming until the skin has healed. You might be advised to avoid strenuous activities. Your healthcare team will inform you about when you can return to work and resume regular activities.

Inform your healthcare team if you experience any of the following:

  • Fever or chills
  • Increased pain, redness, swelling, bleeding, or unusual discharge from the insertion site
  • Coolness, numbness, tingling, or other changes in the treated arm or leg
  • Chest Pain, Pressure, Nausea, Vomiting, Profuse Sweating, Dizziness, or Fainting

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Life after Angioplasty and Stent Placement

The period of recuperation after the procedure can indeed be extended, allowing the body to gradually restore its vitality. Its crucial for patients to consistently make progress day by day and integrate certain supplementary measures. Here are a few lifestyle modifications to embrace after experiencing an Angioplasty:

  • Life after angioplasty necessitates a strict cessation of smoking due to its potential to harm artery linings and promote fat accumulation
  • Following angioplasty, physicians typically recommend specific medications to expedite cardiac recovery and regain physical resilience
  • Patients are commonly counseled to steer clear of unhealthy foods abundant in sodium, cholesterol, trans-fats, and saturated fats. Conversely, their diet should feature foods rich in essential vitamins and iron, such as leafy greens, whole grains, fish, low-fat dairy, fiber, and dried fruits
  • Once angioplasty or stent implantation has resolved the heart condition, patients should progressively increase their physical activity, adhering to medical guidance
  • Weight management assumes paramount importance as a post-angioplasty lifestyle change, particularly for individuals with obesity
  • Elevated stress levels can exacerbate heart issues, elevate blood pressure, and harm arteries. Consequently, patients must take proactive measures to alleviate stress. Engaging in relaxation practices like yoga and meditation proves effective in stress management
  • Stringent moderation of alcohol intake is essential for patients who have undergone angioplasty and stent placement, as excessive consumption can lead to an array of health complications
  • Regular medical follow-up appointments are imperative for patients who have undergone angioplasty and received stents

Success Rate of Angioplasty and Stent Placement

Typically, Coronary Angioplasty and Stent Placement enhance the circulation within the treated artery. A significant number of individuals witness an improvement in their symptoms, enabling them to engage in more activities. It demonstrates a success rate ranging between 85% and 90%.

Occasionally, the Artery may experience a re-narrowing (restenosis), leading to angina symptoms. However, continuous advancements in stent technology have diminished the likelihood of this occurrence. As a result, a considerable portion of individuals experience extended periods without symptoms.

Treatment Cost Analysis & Comparison for Angioplasty and Stent Placement

Medical expenses in India are budget-friendly, with the cost varying from ₹ 66808 ($839) to ₹ 134573 ($1690), contingent on your geographical location and hospital preference. If you're unable to bear steep expenses or lack insurance coverage, there exists a viable economical alternative. Consider exploring the option of undergoing an angioplasty in India. India's healthcare system capitalizes on decreased labor and infrastructure costs, enabling healthcare establishments to furnish services at more affordable prices. Moreover, the presence of proficient medical experts combined with a competitive market cultivates economically efficient approaches. Additionally, India's thriving pharmaceutical sector frequently manufactures generic drugs, which contributes to a decrease in the overall cost of treatment. Numerous accredited hospitals provide these services at notably lower costs than anticipated.

Location Minimum Cost ($) Average Cost ($) Maximum Cost ($)
Delhi $3500 $5000 $8000
Mumbai $3500 $5000 $8000
Chennai $2500 $5500 $8500
Hyderabad $3500 $5000 $8000

Cost of Diagnostics for Angioplasty and Stent Placement

The expenses associated with the preliminary assessments and examinations conducted prior to the Angioplasty and Stent Placement might cover various diagnostic procedures. These additional charges encompass tests such as X-rays, CT scans (computed tomography), MRI scans (magnetic resonance imaging), pulmonary function tests (PFTs), carotid doppler/ultrasound studies (carotids), ankle-brachial index (ABIs), surface echocardiograms (Echo), vein mapping, trans-esophageal echocardiograms (TEE), ECG-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (stress test), heart catheterization (Cath), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and other diagnostic evaluations. The total expenses for these tests can vary between INR 1,00,000 and INR 1,50,000.

Factors Affecting Cost of Angioplasty and Stent Placement

Nonetheless, the cost of Angioplasty and Stent Placement in India might fluctuate contingent on the subsequent key aspects:

  • Health insurance coverage
  • Out of pocket expense
  • Admission charges
  • Cardiologist remuneration
  • Patients age
  • Severity of artery blockage
  • Patients medical state
  • Diagnostic procedure charges
  • Medication cost
  • Complications encountered post-procedure
  • Hospital category
  • Chosen room category for admission
  • Additional laboratory or diagnostic assessments like X-rays, ECGs, Echo, and others

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  • The road to a successful Angioplasty and Stent Placement is long and winding, full of hope, resilience, and the promise of a brighter future. With MedFlick as your guide, navigating this life-changing adventure becomes simple and liberating.

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