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A Breakdown of Cost of Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) in India

icon-blog By -Dr. Aaksha Shukla
icon-blog By -August 1, 2023
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Cost Of Bone Marrow Transplantation

A bone marrow transplant is a medical treatment in which healthy blood-forming stem cells replace bone marrow that isn't creating enough healthy blood cells. A bone marrow transplant is commonly known as a stem cell transplant. If your bone marrow stops functioning and does not create enough healthy blood cells, you may require a bone marrow transplant. A bone marrow transplant, also known as an allogeneic transplant, takes cells from either a donor or your own body. The cost of a bone marrow transplant in India is lower than in countries such as the United States. There are several alternatives for bone marrow transplants in India, including autologous bone marrow transplants, allogeneic bone marrow transplants, and umbilical cord blood transplants.

In India, bone marrow transplants might be autologous, allogeneic, or umbilical cord blood.

The cost of bone marrow transplantation in India is lower than in other nations, such as the United States. Patients seeking bone marrow transplant therapy in India can find the best facilities with reasonable healthcare packages and high-quality equipment or apparatus, as well as the assurance of outstanding treatment quality and top-notch specialists.

Bone Marrow Transplant

The immune system relies heavily on bone marrow. Damaged bone marrow impairs your immune system, making you more vulnerable to infections and diseases. Your immune system decreases as a result of damaged bone marrow, leaving you more vulnerable to infections, diseases, and infections, as well as a shortage of white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. This could cause serious injury to your own body and lead to fatal diseases. That is why a bone marrow transplant is performed when the bone marrow is not working properly, such as when you have a bone marrow illness. It might be difficult to identify the symptoms of a bone marrow disease because the source of bone marrow degradation or injury varies from person to person.

If your bone marrow does not produce enough stem cells, your bone marrow transplant doctor may recommend a transplant. A bone marrow transplant benefits those suffering from common cancer, as well as those whose radiation and prolonged treatment have damaged their bone marrow. Your bone marrow may be saved if you undergo a bone marrow transplant because new stem cells may accelerate the stem cell manufacturing process. With that said, treatment can differ based on the hospital and its location.

Types And Procedures

There are many forms of bone marrow transplants, depending on who the donor is. The various types of BMT include the following:

An Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant

The donor is the patient. Stem cells are extracted from the patient via bone marrow harvest or apheresis (a method of collecting peripheral blood stem cells), stored, and returned to the patient following intense treatment. Often, the term rescue is used instead of transplant.

An Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant

The donor has the same genetic type as the patient. Stem cells are obtained from a genetically matched donor, typically a brother or sister, via bone marrow extraction or apheresis. Other donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplants could include:

  • Parent : A haploid-identical match occurs when the donor is a parent with a genetic match that is at least half identical to the recipient. These transplants are uncommon.
  • Sibling :Sometimes siblings can also donate their bone marrow as they have more than half HLA match when compared to parent donor .

Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplants (UBMT or MUD, for matched unrelated donors)

The genetically matching marrow or stem cells come from an unrelated donor. Unrelated donors are located using national bone marrow registries.

Umbilical Cord Blood Transplants

Stem cells are harvested from an infant's umbilical cord shortly after birth. These stem cells turn into mature, functional blood cells faster and more effectively than stem cells derived from another child's or adult's bone marrow. The stem cells are examined, typed, numbered, and frozen until needed for transplantation.

Factors That Can Affect Bone Marrow Transplant Costs in India

There are several alternatives for bone marrow transplants in India, including autologous bone marrow transplants, allogeneic bone marrow transplants, and umbilical cord blood transplants.The cost of a bone marrow transplant in India is lower than in countries such as the United States.

  • Medication costs.
  • Duration of treatment.
  • Geographical location.
  • Hospitalization expenses.
  • Government policies and subsidies.
  • Medical tourism packages.
  • Hospital reputation and infrastructure.
  • The expertise and experience of medical professionals.
  • The type and frequency of diagnostic procedures.
  • The choice of treatment modality.

Medflick is here to provide assistance from the best BMT specialists in India.

Indications For BMT

Here are some of the most common conditions requiring a bone marrow transplant: Anyone of you who suffers from one of these ailments has to verify with a bone marrow transplant professional to determine your suitability for bone marrow transplantation.

  • Immune Deficiencies
  • Congenital neutropenia is a hereditary illness that is associated with recurrent infections.
  • POEMS syndrome is a rare blood disorder that affects nerves and can affect many different parts of the body.
  • The disorder known as aplastic anemia causes the embryo to stop forming new blood cells.
  • Immature nerve cells found throughout the body generate a kind of cancer called neuroblastoma.
  • A genetic blood condition that results in malformed red blood cells.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy.
  • Plasma Cell Disarray:One or more clones of premalignant or cancerous cells overproduce and release myeloma protein into the bloodstream in a category of increasingly severe monoclonal gammopathies.
  • Thalassemia is an inherited blood condition in which the body produces an aberrant kind of hemoglobin, which is an important component of red blood cells.
  • Inborn metabolic errors and bone marrow cancers (e.g., leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma).

Comparison With Other Countries

Country Cost in USD(approximate)
USA 4,41,402-10,71,000
Singapore 60,000-4,00,000
Turkey 45000-1,00,000
UK 4,41,402-10,71,000

Cost Comparison With Other Cities in India

City Name BMT cost in USD(approximate)
Delhi 11000-55000
Gurugram 10500-54500
Mumbai 10500-48000
Pune 9000-45000
Chennai 9500-52000
Hyderabad 10000-45000
Banglore 11000-49500

Risk Factors for Bone Marrow Transplant

Many factors influence the risk of a bone marrow transplant. For example, it could be your age, overall health, or the ailment for which you are being treated. Other factors that influence the outcome include the type of transplant and the extent to which the donor marrow matches the recipient. Another crucial consideration is how a bone marrow transplant is accomplished. The decision to have radiation or chemotherapy before your bone marrow transplant, as well as the dose of those treatments, has an impact on the outcome of your transplant. The likelihood of problems may vary from person to person. In rare situations, people getting a transplant may require hospitalization and treatment for complications that emerge, some of which may be life-threatening.

Minor problems: associated with bone marrow transplants include the following:

  • Impaired taste
  • A prolonged headache
  • Drop your blood pressure.
  • Odds of contracting a high fever.
  • Nausea
  • Hives
  • Breathing problems
  • Chills

Serious Risk Factors: That Are Related to the Bone Marrow Process Comprise:

  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be a complication. In this process, the donor tissues transplanted via the bone marrow transplant process begin to damage your body.
  • You might contract ailments quite easily, and severe infections can be hard to deal with.
  • There might be clotting on your liver, particularly the veins.
  • You may get anemia.
  • Graft failure may happen when cell manufacturing does not begin as it should.
  • Your organs might begin to bleed, like your lungs and brain.
  • You’ll contract a cataract (cloudiness in your own eyes).
  • You may develop new cancers because of the transplant.
  • You may have premature menopause.
  • You may get mucositis when there’s soreness in your throat, stomach, and mouth area.
  • Psychotherapy is just another complication that may occur from acquiring a bone marrow transplant.

Pretransplant tests and procedures

A series of tests and procedures can assess your general health and the status of your condition. The tests and procedures also ensure that you're physically prepared for the transplant. The evaluation may take several days or more. In addition, a long, thin tube (intravenous catheter) will be implanted into a large vein in your chest or neck. The catheter, often called a central line, usually remains in place for the duration of your treatment. Your transplant team will use the central line to infuse the transplanted stem cells, medications, and blood products into your body.

Collecting stem cells for autologous transplant

If a transplant using your own stem cells (autologous transplant) is planned, you'll undergo a procedure called apheresis (af-uh-REE-sis) to collect blood stem cells.
Before apheresis, you'll receive daily injections of growth factor to increase stem cell production and move stem cells into your circulating blood so that they can be collected.
During apheresis, blood is drawn from a vein and circulated through a machine. The machine separates your blood into different parts, including stem cells. These stem cells are collected and frozen for future use in the transplant. The remaining blood is returned to your body.

Collecting stem cells for allogeneic transplant

If you're having a transplant using stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplant), you'll need a donor. Once a donor is found, stem cells are gathered from that person for the transplant. Stem cells can come from your donor's blood or bone marrow. Your transplant team decides which is better for you based on your situation.
Another type of allogeneic transplant uses stem cells from the blood of the umbilical cords (cord blood transplant). Mothers can choose to donate umbilical cords after their babies births. The blood from these cords is frozen and stored in a cord blood bank until it is needed for a bone marrow transplant.

The conditioning process

After completing the pre transplant tests and procedures, you'll begin a process known as conditioning. During conditioning, you'll undergo chemotherapy and possibly radiation to:

  • Destroy cancer cells if you're being treated for cancer that may spread to other parts of the body.
  • Suppress your immune system.
  • Prepare your bone marrow for the new stem cells.

The type of conditioning process you receive depends on several factors, including the disease being treated, your overall health, and the type of transplant planned. You may have both chemotherapy and radiation or just one of these treatments as part of your conditioning treatment.

Side effects of the conditioning process can include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Hair loss
  • Mouth sores or ulcers
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Infertility or sterility
  • Anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Cataracts
  • Organ complications, such as heart, liver, or lung failure
Pre Transplant Procedure Cost in USD(approximate )
Conditioning  1100-1500
Systemic Analysis  500-800
Diagnostic Tests  600-800

How To Chose Bone Marrow Transplant Doctor In India

A bone marrow transplant specialist is a doctor who focuses on stem cell replacement therapy. They are qualified to perform bone marrow transplants, blood transfusions, and other medical procedures involving the manipulation of blood-forming cells. Patients seek a BMT treatment for a variety of causes, including leukemia treatment, and lymphoma, as well as nonmalignant disorders such as aplastic anemia and hereditary hemolytic anemia. Some of the following points can help you to choose the best bone marrow transplant doctor in India.

Get referrals

When looking for the top cancer doctor in India, you should first gather information from your friends and relatives. If they have any experience with the best doctors in india, attempt to acquire their feedback on those doctors.

Then ask if they would suggest that doctor or not. What was the reasoning behind their preference for that doctor?
If they have any bad comments about their doctor, ask them why. This will help you decide whether to avoid or hire that physician for your bone marrow transplant.

Experience of the Specialist

The bone marrow transplant specialist should have extensive experience performing bone marrow transplants. Knowing the procedure will assist in providing care if issues or problems arise during treatment. It is vital that they can explain everything about this type of medical decision, so you will know what options exist and how each one works.
If you have any questions concerning bone marrow transplants, please ask. Different providers will provide different advice and information based on their area of expertise or personal preferences.

Locations

The first thing you should consider when choosing a doctor is where they are located. If it is not possible to travel far away, this is not a problem, but if someone must fly or drive across the nation, this can be both unpleasant and expensive.

So, which are the best locations to choose?
You should look for a transplant center at one of your city's leading hospitals or cancer centers. This way, they're more likely to have a well-established bone marrow donor program and be familiar with the many types of patients that require transplantation. Most of the time, they are part of a larger medical facility with doctors who specialize in several fields, such as cancer and hematology. As a result, if meeting with these specialists is advantageous to your case, you may choose to do so as well.

Success Rate of the Center

The success rate that you seek in a bone marrow transplant is the cure for your common disease. This is not something we can accomplish right away, and it will take some time to determine whether or not the treatment was successful. It could take months before everyone feels fully recovered from the surgery. In other situations, it may take years for them to determine whether your sickness is gone.

Success rates are crucial in bone marrow transplants because the technique is not guaranteed to work. It can be difficult, and the treatment center you choose may not always have a high success rate for this procedure. This means you'll need someone to help you choose a center that meets your specific requirements.

Support Services Provided by the Center

When a patient or family member is diagnosed with blood cancer, the center provides a variety of services to assist them in making the best choices possible.
They can also provide information regarding bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to both donors and recipients, allowing them to prepare physically and mentally before undergoing this life saving procedure. As the demand for BMT grows, the clinic has expanded its offerings to offer comprehensive care to BMT patients.

Conclusion

Bone-marrow transplantation is a critical treatment that can save lives. This is why it's critical to select the right bone marrow specialist for your treatment. Consider the characteristics listed above before selecting a bone marrow transplant expert in India.

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